The Middle East is currently in the first stages of the phase-out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as mandated under the Beijing amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances. The use of mainstream hydrofluorocabons (HFCs), especially R-134a and R-410 is growing. Most countries in the Middle East focus on improved energy efficiency of buildings, well as of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. In many cases Regulation in the USA and the EU are taken as a template. Building codes in addition place an emphasis on fire safety which in many cases excludes the use of highly flammable hydrocarbons.